Huawei Hongmeng OS (Harmony OS): everything you want to know
By Goraud Mazanec 2019-08-09 1573 0
1. What is Hongmeng Harmony OS?
Harmony OS Hongmeng is a microkernel-based full-scene distributed OS, an autonomous operating system developed by Huawei and a set of operating systems mainly oriented to the future 5G leading era of the Internet of things. Ability to support full scene, across multiple devices and platforms, and the ability to address low-latency, high security challenges. Yu Chengdong said at the meeting, "Hongmeng has an groundbreaking meaning in Chinese. In English, harmonyOS, means to bring more harmony and convenience to the world."
2. Why did Huawei build Hongmeng Harmony OS?
Huawei's original intention of developing Hongmeng Harmony OS was to deal with the coming era of full scene wisdom. The current OS system can no longer meet the needs of the future. Take Android as an example, its code has been huge and redundant for many years, and it is difficult to guarantee the smooth experience of different terminals. Android code has exceeded 100 million lines, and Android Linux kernel code has 20 million lines. Only 8% of the core code is invoked frequently.
Huawei believes that the need to further enhance the cross-platform capabilities of the operating system, including the ability to support the full scene, across multiple devices and platforms, as well as the ability to deal with low-latency, high security challenges, thus gradually forming the prototype of Hongmeng OS. The starting point of Hongmeng OS is different from that of Android and iOS. It is a new distributed operating system based on microkernel and oriented to the whole scene. With the ability to meet the requirements of a smooth full-scene experience, trusted security at the architectural level, seamless cross-terminal collaboration, and a single development of multi-terminal deployment, Hongmeng will be born in the future.
Of course, to seek the development of domestic autonomous operating system, in the changing international market can achieve self-reliance, Hongmeng OS for Huawei is also a necessary thing to do.
3. What is the microkernel of Hongmeng Harmony OS? What is the difference between the macro kernel and the macro kernel?
Hongmeng Harmony OS is a full-scene distributed OS based on microkernel. So what exactly is the microkernel here? The microkernel is that there is only the most basic scheduling in the kernel, and the other system modules are made into a process outside the kernel. The running space of each subroutine will not interfere with each other, and the subroutine can be debugged and developed separately and optimized repeatedly. The upgrade is fast.
In contrast to the macro kernel, the macro kernel integrates many of the parts required by the system into the kernel. For example, the process, thread management, memory management, file system, driver, network protocol and so on of Linux system are all in the kernel, all the services run in an address space, call functions directly from each other, simple and efficient.
4. What are the characteristics of Hongmeng Harmony OS as a whole?
Hongmeng Harmony OS contains four technical features:
● Distributed architecture is used for the first time in terminal OS, to realize seamless collaborative experience across terminals.
Hongmeng OS adopts "distributed OS architecture" and "distributed soft bus technology" through four major capabilities: public communication platform, distributed data management, distributed capability scheduling and virtual peripherals. The implementation difficulty of the underlying technology of the corresponding distributed application is shielded from the application developers, so that the developers can focus on their own business logic and develop cross-terminal distributed applications like the same terminal. It also enables the final consumers to enjoy the seamless experience that the strong cross-terminal business collaboration ability brings to each use scenario.
● Determine the delay engine and high-performance IPC technology to achieve system fluency.
Hongmeng OS solves the problem of insufficient performance of existing systems by using two major technologies: deterministic delay engine and high-performance IPC. It is determined that the delay engine can schedule the task execution priority and time limit in the allocation system before task execution. The task resources with high priority will give priority to scheduling, and the application response delay will be reduced by 25.7%. The small structure of Hongmeng microkernel greatly improves the performance of IPC (interprocess communication), and the efficiency of process communication is five times higher than that of the existing system.
● Reshaping trusted Security of Terminal Devices based on Micro-Kernel Architecture
Hongmeng OS adopts a new microkernel design, which has stronger security features and low delay. The basic idea of micro-kernel design is to simplify the kernel function, implement as many system services as possible in the user state outside the kernel, and add security protection to each other at the same time. The microkernel only provides the most basic services, such as multi-process scheduling and multi-process communication.
Hongmeng OS applies microkernel technology to trusted execution environment (TEE), to reshape trusted security through formal method. Formal method is an effective means to verify the correctness of the system from the source and no loopholes by using mathematical methods.
Traditional verification methods such as functional verification and simulated attacks can only be verified in selected limited scenarios, while formal methods can verify all software running paths through data models. Hongmeng OS used formal methods to significantly improve the security level of terminal TEE, for the first time. At the same time, because the code amount of the Hongmeng OS microkernel is only 1/1000 of that of the Linux macro kernel, its probability of being attacked is also greatly reduced.
● Support one development and multi-terminal deployment through unified IDE to achieve cross-terminal ecological sharing
Hongmeng OS with multi-terminal development IDE, multi-language unified compilation, distributed architecture Kit provides screen layout controls and interactive automatic adaptation, support control drag and drop, preview-oriented visual programming, So that developers can efficiently build a multi-terminal automatic run App, based on the same project to achieve a real one-time development, multi-terminal deployment, and achieve a shared ecology across devices.
Huawei Ark compiler is the first static compiler to replace Android virtual machine mode, allowing developers to compile high-level languages into machine code at once in a development environment. In addition, the ark compiler will support multi-language unified compilation in the future, which can greatly improve the development efficiency.
5. Is Hongmeng Harmony OS system open source or closed source?
Hongmeng OS will open source to developers around the world and promote the establishment of an open source foundation and an open source community.
6. What is the system composition of Hongmeng Harmony OS?
Hongmeng Harmony OS currently includes the underlying kernel (Linux kernel, Hongmeng microkernel, LiteOS), basic services (multi-Run Time such as ark, general system services, IoT device proprietary services, distributed data management, virtual peripherals, UI graphics, etc.).
Distributed soft bus), program framework (multi-user program framework such as Hongmeng, Web.), application (watch application, large screen application, car machine application, PC application) four aspects.
In the future, Hongmeng Harmony OS will continue to develop, will set the basic service as the outer core, and add file system, power management, memory management and device driver, the kernel is Hongmeng microkernel.
7. What is the progress of Hongmeng Harmony OS development and landing?
The development progress of Hongmeng Harmony OS is as follows:
Hongmeng Kernel 1.0 completed technical verification in 2017, Hongmeng Kernel 2.0 was used in terminal TEE in 2018, and Hongmeng OS 1.0 will be used first in smart screen products (also the first product of Hongmeng OS) in 2019. In 2020, Hongmeng OS 2.0 will be used in innovative domestic PC, watches, bracelets, cars and other products. In 2021, Hongmeng OS 3.0 will be used in speakers, headphones and other products. It will be used in more devices such as VR glasses after 2022.
8. What is the difference between Hongmeng Harmony OS and Android?
The starting point of Hongmeng OS is different from that of Android and iOS. It is based on microkernel and is oriented to the whole scene. It can meet the requirements of smooth experience of the whole scene, trusted security at the architectural level, seamless cooperation across terminals, and developing multi-terminal deployment at a time. Hong Meng should be born in the future and should be born in the Internet of things.
Hongmeng OS is safer than Android. Android has Root rights, and users can take full control of Android after Root. Hung Meng, on the other hand, does not have the option of Root. In addition, Hongmeng based on the trusted execution environment of micro-kernel technology, through the formal method to significantly improve the kernel security level, and comprehensively improve the security capability of the whole scene terminal devices. The microkernel can lock each one individually, and it is impossible for a key to break through everything. The isolation of the outer core is safer and more efficient.
Hongmeng OS has stronger and smoother performance than Android. Android follows the Linux kernel scheduling mechanism, which is a fair scheduling mode for server load, so it is difficult to ensure user experience. Hongmeng OS ensures that the user interaction experience is smooth by determining the delay engine, matches the application characteristics to achieve accurate resource scheduling, and reduces the response delay by 25.7%, bringing the user a smooth and stable experience. It is equivalent to dividing the overtaking lane, the fast lane, the slow lane and the bicycle lane on a road, so that different vehicles can be classified and different resources can be transmitted in an orderly manner.
Hongmeng OS has the advantage of one development and multi-terminal deployment over Android, supports multi-terminal IDE environment and improves development efficiency.
In the future, Hongmeng kernel will replace all kernels such as Linux, and support all applications through the outer core to user program framework API, including Android applications, Linux, Unix applications, development environment, development languages, multiple operating languages, and multiple platforms. Development applications can run on it. That is, Hongmeng will be compatible with Linux, Unix and Android.
9. When does Huawei phones use Hongmeng Harmony OS?
At the conference, Yu Chengdong said the Hongmeng Harmony OS could be used on mobile phones. But when will it be reused on Huawei phones? Yu Chengdong said: "We can use it at any time, but for ecological reasons, we support Google's Android ecology, and we give priority to using Google's Android operating system, if the Android operating system is not available." We can use our Hongmeng at any time. " At the same time, Yu Chengdong said that the migration of Android ecological applications to Huawei Hongmeng OS, development workload is very small, even using the ark compiler, using Huawei ecology to connect, may be done in a day or two.
10. What are the advantages of Hongmeng Harmony OS development environment?
Hongmeng OS has a very friendly development environment from the aspects of programming language, compiler, application distribution format, runtime library and so on.
The features of the Hongmeng OS microkernel can be flexibly deployed to provide full-scene, diverse security device capabilities. And Huawei's LITEOS, is lightweight and takes care of all applications. At the same time, Huawei Ark compiler, multi-terminal IDE development environment to support the current Hongmeng OS.
In the past, developers who developed applications for watches were different from those for mobile phones. There was a lot of work to adapt and develop different hardware. Hongmeng OS supported a set of code for developers through the development environment provided by Huawei. Can adapt to different types of terminals, very convenient, one-time development of multi-terminal deployment, improve development efficiency, cross-device ecological sharing. For example, music playback software development, to the home is a large screen, TV wisdom screen, can be automatically adapted. Hongmeng OS's IDE environment can be automatically adapted by dragging and dragging.
The Ark compiler supported by Hongmeng OS is a unified compiler that really supports multiple programming languages, which can greatly improve the efficiency of development, and even hybrid programming. High-performance programs may use C / C, but general applications use JAVA, Kotlin, and even support mixed compilation.
Greatly improve the efficiency of the running program, at the same time, Hongmeng OS with the help of distributed capabilities, provides Kit to develop cross-terminal applications, including distributed soft bus Kit, etc., and realizes distributed cross-terminal development through Kit. It's as simple as developing ordinary applications. In the past, operating systems did not support such capabilities, and now developers will get a lot of convenience.
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